文章摘要
冷萱,李涵.学科集聚、知识溢出与基础研究产出[J].数量经济技术经济研究,2022,(9):94-113
学科集聚、知识溢出与基础研究产出
Subject Agglomeration, Knowledge Spillover and Basic Research Efficiency
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 学科集聚  信息成本  知识溢出  基础研究  科技自立自强
英文关键词: Subject Agglomeration  Information Costs  Knowledge Spillover  Basic Research  Self-reliance and Self-improvement in Science and Technology
基金项目:
作者单位
冷萱 西南财经大学经济与管理研究院 
李涵 西南财经大学国际商学院 
中文摘要:
      基础研究对于中国科技实现自立自强有着决定性的作用。本文收集2006~2020年大学学科层面论文发表数据,根据城市领域学科点数量构建城市领域层面的学科集聚指标,使用多维固定效应和工具变量法从学科集聚的视角对如何提升基础研究产出效率这一问题进行回答。研究发现,学科集聚能产生显著的知识溢出,进而提升大学学科基础研究产出效率。具体而言,城市领域层面的学科点数量每增加1%,该城市对应大学的学科论文发表数量将显著增加1.25%。机制分析表明,学科集聚降低了基础研究中的信息成本,促进了研究人员面对面的交流,主要体现为学科集聚增加了研究人员参加学术会议的概率,以及论文的被引用次数。本文的研究将应用研究的知识溢出扩展到基础研究的知识溢出,扩展了创新知识溢出的研究边界,系统性地评估了城市领域层面学科集聚的知识溢出效应。同时,本文从学科集聚产生知识溢出的视角补充了大学如何影响创新和地方经济发展的微观机制。本文的研究为新发展阶段如何促进科技自立自强提供了依据。
英文摘要:
      Promoting innovation has always been a topic of great interest to economists and policy makers. Innovation is needed to improve social and economic efficiency, and science and technology are needed to enhance the well-being of society and peoples livelihood. How to promote innovation development, crack the “stuck” technical problems in production applications, and achieve Self-reliance and Self-improvement in Science and Technology is a key focus point to promote the construction of a new development pattern. Compared with applied research, basic research is the source of science and technology and innovation, and has a fundamental role in determining the overall innovation level of the country and solving the “neck” technical problems. How to promote basic research to further impact innovation is an urgent issue at present.This paper collects university-major level publication data from 2006 to 2020, and constructs city-subject level subject agglomeration indicators to answer this question from the perspective of basic research agglomeration. Using multidimensional fixed effects and instrumental variables to answer this question. This paper also compiles data on university subject-level meeting papers and being cited Chinese papers from 2006 to 2020 to analyze the impact of subject clustering on the dissemination of ideas and knowledge flow, thereby highlighting the important impact of reduced information costs from face-to-face communication on basic research. We find that city-subject level subject agglomeration promotes the efficiency of basic research output at the major level in universities. Specifically, a 1% increase in city-subject level subject agglomeration is associated with a significant 1.25% increase in the number of papers published at the major level in universities. This reflects the importance of subject agglomeration on the impact of major knowledge spillover and basic research output at universities. This paper addresses possible omitted variables at the university and city levels by controlling for two interactive fixed effects of year-university and university-subject, which in turn mitigate possible endogeneity problems. This paper also uses the 1952 faculty restructuring as an instrumental variable for subject agglomeration in order to conduct robustness checks.The heterogeneity analysis shows that: firstly, subject agglomeration has the greatest impact on high-quality basic research output; secondly, subject agglomeration has a significant contribution to both double- and non-dual-tier universities, but has a relatively small impact on non-dual-tier universities; furthermore, this paper also finds that the knowledge spillover effects from subject agglomeration are mainly in non-technical disciplines that are less dependent on physical capital; finally, the impact of agglomeration on basic research output gradually strengthens over time, probably because the development of intra-city transportation infrastructure further reduces the information costs for researchers to communicate. Mechanistic analysis shows that subject agglomeration reduces information costs in basic research and facilitates face-to-face communication among researchers, mainly by increasing the probability of researchers attending academic conferences and increasing the number of citations of papers.The contributions of this paper are twofold: first, this paper investigates the impact of knowledge spillovers on innovation output and the role of universities on economic development based on the unique perspective of basic research. Specifically: (a) This paper extends the knowledge spillover from applied research to basic research, extends the research boundary of innovation knowledge spillover, systematically assesses the knowledge spillover effect of disciplinary agglomeration at the urban domain level, and discusses the impact of agglomeration on the output efficiency of basic research. (b) This paper complements the micro mechanisms of how universities influence innovation and local economic development from the perspective of knowledge spillovers from university basic research, where existing studies have focused on compulsory education laws and higher education expansion to promote human capital accumulation, which in turn acts on the development of our economy. It is more straightforward to discuss the impact of university agglomeration on patent innovation and thus the local economy, while ignoring the impact of the agglomeration effect on basic research output generated by the basic research undertaken by universities themselves, and failing to focus on how the root causes of innovation drive the development of innovation. The research in this paper provides a basis for how to promote scientific and technological self-reliance and self-improvement in the new development stage
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